(Click for a hint)
|Note: Make sure you keep a hard copy file of essential resources for referencing—a plastic sleeve folder is recommended. You can print relevant resources from 'UNE referencing' on the ASO home page.|
(Click for a hint)
|Note: These are excellent sites for practising your referencing skills BUT be aware that there may be small style variations between universities.|
- About citing authors
- The APA Author-date referencing style
- Placing the author in your writing
- Reporting words for authors
- Don't do this!
- More information
Key words: author-date, citation, in-text references, strong author, weak author, reporting words
Referencing is a very important academic convention that recognises that academic writing builds on previous research. In nearly all assignments, you are required to refer to the work of others. You must ALWAYS explicitly acknowledge these sources as an in-text reference in the body of your assignment AND as an item in the list of references at the end of your work.
There are a number of referencing styles in place at UNE and you must know the appropriate style for your study units. These activities will assist you to understand the general principles of referencing. Please note that the APA referencing style is used in this workshop.
Locate all of the ASO Factsheets before you start the activities for this workshop.
The APA Author-date referencing style uses in-text citations (integrating the names of authors in your paragraph) to credit information to the correct source. This format is the same for all types of references (e.g. print, multi-media, Internet). In-text references contain THREE ITEMS:
- the name/s of author/s
- year of publication
- page number or paragraph number (if no page number is available)
Exercise 1: Author-date referencing
Read this example and note the format for citing authors in-text:
There are two techniques you can use to put the names of authors in your writing.
Click on each link for a description.
STRONG authorBEFORE you give the information, you use the surname/s of the author as part of your writing followed by the year:page in brackets.
ExampleAccording to Elton (2009, pp. 106-109), students who show mastery in assignment writing ...
WEAK authorAFTER you have given the information, you place a bracket around the surname/s year:page.
ExampleRecent studies into student assignment writing show that ... (Elton, 2009, pp. 106-109)
Exercise 2: Author orientation
Read this paragraph again and identify the author orientation.
There are many ways to bring your authorities (authors) into your writing. It is very important that you choose the correct words to match the meaning you are making in your writing. Following is a sample list of reporting words to help you make correct choices:
Reporting words for incorporating author namesA: acknowledges, adds, admits, affirms, agrees, argues, asserts assumes, assures
C: challenges, claims, clarifies, comments, concedes, concludes
D: declares, demonstrates, denies, describes, disagrees, discusses, doubts
E: elaborates, emphasises, explains
I: implies, infers, informs
M-O: maintains, mention, notes, observes
P-Q: points out, presents, proves, questions
R: reasons, recognises, refutes, relates, remarks, reports, requests, responds, reveals
S: shows, states, suggests
T-W: thinks, urges, warns
There is some more very helpful information about Reporting words (Monash University) to help you to understand the finer points of using author names in your writing.
In general, use the present tense to introduce the information from your authors (e.g. use 'points out' not 'pointed out').
- Don't just dump information into your paragraph. A paragraph needs 'flow', so use reporting phrases to introduce your information and transitional words to help it all 'hang together'.
- Don't just write a whole paragraph from one source and put a name at the end of the paragraph. Each idea in a paragraph is referenced at SENTENCE LEVEL.
- Avoid using citations in the topic and concluding sentences of a paragraph.